Archive for the ‘stove controlled testing’ Category

What is smoke?

December 2, 2010

According to an online dictionary (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/), smoke is “the gaseous products of burning materials especially of organic origin made visible by the presence of small particles of carbon” and steam is “a vapor arising from a heated substance”.

Steam is often resultant from wet feedstock, although wet biomass can also lead to other emissions.

A traditional stove. India 2010

In relation to cook stoves, emission measurements sometimes cover smoke, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. These can be measured by a smoke density metre (i.e optical) and flue gas analyser (electrochemical or similar). Other harmful substances including PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometres) or 3.5 or 10 for example are also commonly measured by specialist devices (i.e electron microscope).
Other emissions from burning can include GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide), VOCs, NO/NO2, and other sulphates.

Gases chosen to be analysed are commonly those which are most harmful to health or are indicative of other harmful substances. There is not necessarily a link between emissions and efficiency (i.e thermal efficiency or fuel efficiency) – more on this later.

Analysis should be undertaken for the whole cooking cycle as emissions can change. Also lighter substances need to be taken into account (resin / rubber for example will produce high and noxious emissions), and also it should be noted that once pots are introduced into trials, the condensing smoke / steam can produce more visible emissions, although the actual emissions may not be changing.

Gasses can be ‘flared off’ from cook stoves, for example in a gasification stove. However more generally smoke and other emissions are produced with inefficient combustion, so increasing the efficiency of combustion (i.e by adding a grate to a traditional stove, which leads to increased oxygen supply) can be a simple way of reducing emissions from a stove.

Although it is outside the remit of this project we think that emissions measurements are critical to effectively analyse the potential for deployment of any stove type. A stove which has emissions higher than the baseline stove should never be considered.

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Testing of the new Anila stove

August 22, 2010

The Anila stove which was fabricated in India was tested 17.08.2010.
The results are available on bioenergylists.

Sugarcane biochar produced - Anila Stove, India, August 2010

The ARTI team were able to make some suggestions, to refine the design. These were:
– Adding a mud seal along the join of the main unit to the base plate, this stopped the gases from the biochar production from escaping. This was simply some mud which is smeared around the join
– Addition of a ‘pot raiser’. The stove was also observed to become smoky once the pot was added, a pot raiser was added to the unit, which reduced the amount of smoke which was.
– Making the holes smaller…After getting the units from the artisan the researcher suggested to increase the size and number of holes in the unit, however after testing, it was found that the flames were high – partly due to excess air flow up through the combustion chamber. (during trials with the smaller holes this did not impede the production of biochar).

The flames from the Anila are derived from the combustion of the wood (in the central combustion chamber), and also the gas (from gasification of the biomass in the outer chamber) which is able to travel out from the holes (in the lower part of the central column) into the combustion chamber.

Even with the adjustments, there was still some smoke produced from this unit, so as in Cambodia, it will be recommended that the testers use the stove in an outside location / or in a well ventilated room.

Generally the stove worked well, and we were able to make biochar from sugarcane trash and tree waste (Casurina equisetifolia).

The next step is testing in the household…

Testing of the Sampanda stove 12.07.2010

July 13, 2010

The Sampanda stove from India was trialled in Cambodia. See bioenergy lists for more information:
http://www.bioenergylists.org/content/testing-sampanda-sto

Monitoring fuel use using the KPT

June 10, 2010

Webinar: Monitoring fuel use using the kitchen performance test. 08.06.2010. The Partnership for Clean Indoor Air (http://www.pciaonline.org/)

This was an interesting discussion attended by Sarah. Two case studies in China and Ghana were presented, where the KPT was used as part of an improved stove project monitoring protocol.

In particular the following points were noted:
– In the China case study participants underestimated the amount of fuel they use.
– The KPT is an expensive and human resource expensive method (compared with WBT and CCT) – the sample selection process and data analysis is more involved than the other tests.
– For feasibility studies the participant is most likely not familiar with the stove, so this has to be taken into account when choosing tests to use.
– All the methods (WBT, CCT, KPT) can be used for multiple fuels / stove types and can include a traditional (baseline) stove in addition to the improved stoves.
– The Voluntary Gold Standard (for Carbon finance) requires that the KPT be used for monitoring and verification purposes. Some projects hire the Berkeley Air Monitoring Group to undertake this as an independent body.

Sampanda stove demonstration 22.05.10

May 29, 2010

The Sampanda stove was demonstrated by it’s developers in India; Samuchit Enviro Tech Pvt Ltd (distributers, designers and promotors of stove technologies including the Sampanda).

Sampanda demonstration, 22.05.2010, India

Controlled testing of the Anila stove

May 3, 2010

Testing began on the Anila stove, more details can be found on bioenergylists: http://www.bioenergylists.org/content/testing-anila-stove

Controlled testing of EverythingNice

May 1, 2010

30.04.2010 EverythingNice stove testing

Tests were carried out on the EverythingNice stove. Notes are available at:
http://www.bioenergylists.org/content/testing-everythingni

Controlled testing of TLUD

April 27, 2010

The stove was tested according to water boiling test guidelines… more information on this to follow.

Two feedstocks were chosen to begin with, small sticks and chopped wood. The sticks were found around the site, and gathered quickly, and less than $0.05 worth of purchased wood was burned per test, which was firstly chopped into smaller pieces.

Details about the testing today, have been uploaded onto http://www.bioenergylists.org see:
http://www.bioenergylists.org/content/testing-andersons-tl

27.04.2010 wood pieces test of TLUD

Stove testing begins…

April 9, 2010

Today (09/04/2010) we practised using the Anila and the Everything Nice stove, before the controlled testing is carried out.

Small pieces of wood (around 5cm x 2cm) were used, as well as rice straw and cow dung in different amounts. Water was boiled and different lighting methods experimented with – some worked better than others!

Information from today will be used to slightly modify the stove design where required to increase usability / efficiency.

The Anila stove 09/04/2010


The Everything Nice stove 09/04/2010